title How do islands become green?
authors Heleno, R; Vargas, P
author full name Heleno, Ruben; Vargas, Pablo
nationality nacional
source GLOBAL ECOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY
language English
document type Article
author keywords Anemochory; Azores; endozoochory; epizoochory; LDD; oceanic islands; plant colonizations; seed dispersal syndromes; thalassochory; theory of island biogeography
keywords plus LONG-DISTANCE DISPERSAL; SEED DISPERSAL; AZORES; MECHANISMS; PLANTS; COLONIZATION; BIOGEOGRAPHY; PERSPECTIVE; EVOLUTION; KRAKATAU
abstract AimFour long-distance dispersal (LDD) modes have generally been considered to play central roles in the colonization of islands by plants: anemochory (dispersal by wind), thalassochory (dispersal by oceanic currents), endozoochory (internal dispersal by animals) and epizoochory (external dispersal by animals). However, seeds can also be transported by vectors different from those to which they are best suited (non-standard dispersal), meaning that the actual vector of colonization cannot be inferred based on diaspore traits alone. We propose an alternative approach to explore the relative contribution of LDD syndromes to island colonization. LocationEurope and the Azores. MethodsWe scored the presence of syndromes relevant for LDD in the native flora of Europe (c. 10,000 species) and the Azores (148 species). We then contrasted the importance of each syndrome in the recipient flora (Azores) and the source floras (Europe and mainland Portugal) to estimate which, if any, syndrome was particularly successful for overseas colonization. We further investigated whether particular LDD syndromes increased plant distribution within the Azores archipelago. ResultsMost native species in Europe (63%), mainland Portugal (67%) and the Azores (63%) produce unspecialized diaspores. Only species adapted to sea dispersal were overrepresented in the Azores, while those adapted to wind dispersal were underrepresented. The presence of LDD syndromes did not significantly improve the distribution of plant species across the archipelago, except for the moderate advantage of endozoochorous diaspores. Differences in the importance of LDD syndromes across plant families at least partially explain the floristic disharmony of the Azorean flora. Main conclusionsOnly thalassochory appeared to have significantly favoured the colonization of the Azores. The high proportion of unspecialized diaspores, the unexceptional representation of most specialized LDD syndromes and the dissociation between syndromes and inter-island plant distribution in the Azores suggest that non-standard events are more common than previously believed in the colonization of islands by plants.
author address [Heleno, Ruben] Univ Coimbra, Dept Life Sci, Ctr Funct Ecol, P-3000456 Coimbra, Portugal; [Vargas, Pablo] Real Jardin Bot Madrid CSIC RJB, Madrid, Spain
reprint address Heleno, R (reprint author), Univ Coimbra, Dept Life Sci, Ctr Funct Ecol, P-3000456 Coimbra, Portugal.
e-mail address rheleno@uc.pt
funding agency and grant number Fundacao para Ciencia e Tecnologia [IF/00441/2013]; Marie Curie Action [FP7-PEOPLE-2012-CIG-321794]; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness [CGL2012-38624-C02-01]
funding text We are grateful to those who compiled and shared information about both floras and diaspore dispersal syndromes, especially to Paulo Borges, Hanno Schaeffer, Henry Ford, Martin Winter and all the colleagues who discussed different points of this study, particularly at the INTECOL (London 2013) and Island Biology (Honolulu 2014) conferences. We are also grateful to Pedro Jordano and Conley McMullen for their comments on the manuscript and Manuel Nogales, Jens Olesen and Anna Traveset for all the fruitful discussions. The following botanical experts were consulted: Juan Jose Aldasoro (Geraniaceae), Ines Alvarez (Asteraceae-Anthemideae), Pilar Catalan (Festuca), Modesto Luceno (Cyperaceae), Ana Ortega (Galium), Enrique Rico (Asteraceae-Gnaphalieae), Riki Riina (Euphorbiaceae). R.H. was funded by Fundacao para Ciencia e Tecnologia (IF/00441/2013) and by the Marie Curie Action (FP7-PEOPLE-2012-CIG-321794), P.V. was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (CGL2012-38624-C02-01).
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cited reference count 48
publisher WILEY-BLACKWELL
publisher city HOBOKEN
publisher address 111 RIVER ST, HOBOKEN 07030-5774, NJ USA
issn 1466-822X
29-character source abbreviation GLOBAL ECOL BIOGEOGR
iso source abbreviation Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr.
publication date MAY
year published 2015
volume 24
issue 5
beginning page 518
ending page 526
digital object identifier (doi) 10.1111/geb.12273
page count 9
web of science category Ecology; Geography, Physical
subject category Environmental Sciences & Ecology; Physical Geography
document delivery number CF4OY
unique article identifier WOS:000352530900002
link http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/geb.12273/abstract;jsessionid=C64FB558AD674DDB219247D794118451.f03t03
CFE authors
Ruben Heleno